Types of Solution, Solvent with Example
- the extent to which solute solute dissolves in solvent to form homogeneous solution depends on nature of solute and solvent. The general rule is , like dissolves like. Polar solutes are soluble in polar solvents, e.g. NaClin water.
- Non polar solutes are soluble in non polar solvents e.g. iodine in CCl4. Water is called universal solvent, as it is a polar and has very high dielectric constant, hence, dissolves most of the polar solutes. Solutions with many components can also be prepared. Accordingly solutions containing two, three, four, etc. components are called binary, ternary and quaternary solutions respectively.
- Solutions prepared in water are called aqueous solutions and in other solvents are called non-aqueous solutions. The components of true solutions cannot be separated by simple physical methods like centrifugation , filtration , etc. This is because the solute particles are very small.
- Commonly, in any solution, the substance present in smaller amounts is called as the solute, and the substance which is present in larger amount is called solvent.
- The three States of matter solid, liquid and gas may play role of either solvent or solute. There are nine types of solutions depending on the physical states of solvents and solutes which are listed below in the table.
Table for Types of Solution with Example:
|*Types of Solutions||Solute||Solvent||Examples|
|Gas in gas||Gas||Gas||Air, mixture of non-reacting gaseous and vapours|
|Liquid in gas||Liquid||Gas||Chloroform mixed with nitrogen gas|
|Solid in gas||Solid||Gas||Smoke, fumes,I2 in air|
|Gas in Liquid||Gas||Liquid||Co2 in water,N2 in chloroform|
|Liquid in Liquid||Liquid||Liquid||Alcohol in water
|Solid in Liquid||Solid||Liquid||Nacl or Sugar in Water|
|Gas in Solid||Gas||Solid||H2 gas in palladium metal, pumice stone|
|Liquid in solid||Liquid||Solid||Sodium amalgum|
|Solid in Solid||Solid||Solid||Alloys, Brass, Bronze, Cu in gold.|